Document Type


Publication Date

Summer 2015

Publication Citation

22 Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies 769 (2015)


To participate in international competitions, countries must submit to the doping rules set forth in the World Anti-Doping Code (the Code), a document brought into being by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Under the Agency's Code, athletes are required to commit to mandatory binding arbitration in the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS), which gives them few chances for review of unjustly harsh sanctions. The CAS needs to re-examine its method of appealing doping cases because WADA's current strict liability scheme, coupled with the CAS's transnational jurisdiction, continually violates the rights of international athletes.