Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Laws (LLM)


With the remarkable development of GMOs, GMO trade has also increased. The different attitudes on GMOs among the countries all over the world, specifically the US, EU, and South Korea, have the potential to create international trade conflicts. In order to mediate the conflicts, reasonable labeling and liability systems need to be established to prevent potential GMO risks. The Biosafety Protocol regarding the transboundary movement of GMOs exists to resolve such tensions, but it fails to sufficiently solve the problems and provide clear regulations concerning GMO labeling and liability systems.

A successful GMO labeling and liability system should emphasize the precautionary principle and use a cooperative approach that considers all views on GMOs. After reviewing current international and domestic standards, particularly the ones in South Korea, the GMO labeling system should be mandatory, supporting the "consumer's right to know." Additionally, the new GMO liability system should reflect a civil liability system, where standards protect the party injured by GMOs in the direction of compensating the damage fully and efficiently by using the precautionary principle.