Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Juridical Science (SJD)


Introduced in 2003, the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI) has developed into a norm of international law. The PSI statement of interdiction has gained status as a principle for conducting maritime interdiction to stop the illicit trafficking of weapons of mass destruction. As of 2011, ninety-eight countries, more than 50% of all countries in the world, have committed to practicing PSI. In addition, eleven ship-boarding agreements concluded with major flag-state countries have given the PSI access to more than 75% of commercial ships worldwide. In the international forum, the PSI has influenced international law, evidenced by the passing of U.N. Security Council Resolution 1540 in 2004, U.N. Security Council Resolution 1874 in 2009, and the recent entry into force of the 2005 Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation Protocol in 2010, all of which share PSI motives and methods as conveyed in the PSI statement of interdiction. This dissertation has shown how the PSI has developed into a norm of international law.