Federal Communications Law Journal

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Citation

59 Federal Communications Law Journal 157 (2006)


This Article examines the legal status of Spyware under federal and common law in the United States of America. The Authors begin with a technical overview of Spyware technology, which covers Spyware's functionality, methods of dispersion, and classification. The Authors then analyze the treatment of Spyware under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, the Stored Communications Act, the Wiretap Act, and under general tort claims of trespass to chattels, invasion of privacy, and intrusion upon seclusion. The Authors conclude that none of the aformentioned causes of action provide an adequate remedy at law for Spyware victims. Moreover, the Authors note that even if an adequate cause of action were to exist, Spyware developers could avoid civil litigation by operating solely within Spyware friendly jurisdictions. The Authors speculate that an appropriate solution would be for the legislature to require all Spyware programs to contain multi-click End User License Agreements. Not only would this approach protect consumers by enabling them to make informed decisions and creating an effective cause of action against Spyware distributors, it would also help the Spyware industry as a whole by legitimizing commercially viable Spyware programs.